Northern Pygmy-Owls are found in western North America and Central America.
Their population status is not well-studied but they are not believed to be declining.
Their diet consists mainly of small birds and rodents and large insects. Occasionally, they will eat reptiles and amphibians. They hunt during the day and at dusk and dawn. They search for prey from a perch, pouncing on it from a close distance when prey is found.
Females usually lay 3-5 eggs in tree cavities. Unlike most owls, which start incubating the eggs soon after the first eggs are laid, the Northern Pygmy-Owl does not start incubation until all the eggs have been laid. About 29 days later, all the chicks hatch within a short time of each other. The young fledge at 30 days and are independent of parental care in 20-30 days. They are able to reproduce in less than a year.